Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) – 4th Edition
Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) – 4th Edition

Call For Abstracts

  • 27, Oct / 29, Oct 2020
  • Pisa,Italy
Conference Email
citaa@ierek-scholar.org
Login To register, Upload your abstract or full paper
Introduction

Recently, great attention has been raised to the transformation of our cities, which has been directed to the field of urban studies. The identity of cities has become a serious issue for many countries at present. That's why; the role of organizations and governments has become to maintain and fix architectural buildings in order to save their heritage.

It is easy to identify a city's identity by looking at its vocabularies that could be embodied through its architecture and arts, where they are the platforms of cultural, traditional, historical and economic aspects. With each city's unique identity, the impact is left behind and history is made. They identify the part of history that defines our past, shapes who we are today, and who we are likely to become in the future. Once we ignore the meaning of our traditions, we're in danger of damaging the underpinning of our identity.

Investigating these diverse approaches taken in both fields; architecture and contemporary art; this conference will discuss how historical cities are going to change in the future and how architecture and arts are to be preserved. It will also discuss the cities' self-identity, how this identity could be affected over the upcoming years as well as how the architecture and contemporary arts of cities could affect its identity.

In this context, IEREK organizes this conference to discuss several topics regarding different vocabularies. For instance, the sacred architecture, heritage buildings, open spaces, landmarks, the street escapes, etc.; all of them have direct influences at the cities' form. The cities' form also receives the indirect impact from the citizens themselves, such as their culture that accordingly depends on the art, which could be seen and embodied through moral, painting, media, digital art, and sculpture. It then discusses the fundamental elements that have the full resilience and responsibility of the identity of the cities.

Following the success of the first, second and third international conferences on "Cities' Identity Through Architecture and Arts", the Fourth Edition of the conference will be held from the 27th to the 29th of Oct,  2020. Benefit from an opportunity and exchange knowledge with experts in this field.

This conference also welcomes research papers that includes different case studies that present many solutions of activating the concept of the responsibility of architecture and arts on the development of our cities. It is an important initiative, which presents a new approach that depends on the available features of cities and how planners and decision-makers use these resources of the cities' features as the thread tip in solving the urban problems that our cities are facing.

All accepted papers of the fourth Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) after the peer-review process will be either published as chapters in the Book Series “Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation” (ASTI) by Springer or in The International Journal of Academic Research Community Publication (ARChive) online by IEREK Press.

 

Conference Topics
  • 1. Identifying and Shaping Cities and formation

    1.1 Cities with Religious and Cultural Theme

    1.2 City Structure, Features, and Elements

    1.3 The City's Image and Self-Identity

    1.4 Transition to Smart and Cities: Structure and Transformation

    1.5 Advances in Technologies of City Planning and Development

    1.6 Urban Growth, Morphology, and its Impact on Cities Identity

    1.7 New Development in Urban Design and Shaping the City and its Culture

    1.8 The Influences of City Elements and Vocabularies in the City Form and Development

  • 2. Heritage Arts: Sustainability, Identities and Public Regulations

    2.1 Cultural Heritage Protection Conservation and Reuse

    2.2 Ideologies and Movements: Shaping the City and its History

    2.3 Visuals Arts Role in Documenting Architectural Heritage

    2.4 Branding the City Heritage Identities and Sustainable Heritage

    2.5 Public Regulations and Efforts in Heritage Conservation

    2.6 Mapping Cities Vocabularies: Ecological Approach of Conservation Projects

    2.7 The Correlation between Architecture and Arts and Conservation of Cities Vocabularies

    2.8 The Role of Heritage Sites in Driving the City Fabrics

  • 3. Contemporary Arts: City Visual Arts and Visualization

    3.1 Visuals in Architectural Heritage in Modern Era

    3.2 Future of Our Past: Archeology is Yesterday's Visual Arts for today

    3.3 Visual Arts Role in Documenting Architectural Heritage

    3.4 Art, Music, Interaction Visualization Media and its Impact on Human

    3.5 The Dialogue between Ancient and Contemporary Visuals

    3.6 Cultural Spaces and Landscapes in Contemporary Arts

    3.7 Artistic Heritages and its Impact on Contemporary Arts

    3.8 Contemporary Art in Reviving Modern and Historical Cities

  • 4. Development of Cities’ vocabularies

    4.1 Planning for Sustainable Context of Re-discovering Heritage Vocabularies

    4.2 The Future of Cities Art, Architecture, and Historical Cities

    4.3 Architecture and Arts in Cultural Transformation Age

    4.4 Shaping and Transformation of Successful Case Studies

    4.5 Policies and Guidelines for Planning and Transformation of Cities

    4.6 Best Practices for Dealing with Historical Areas and Buildings

    4.7 Historic Conservation and Economic Plans for Sustainable Tourism

    4.8 Cultural Spaces Development and Landscapes in Contemporary Arts

Participation Procedures

(Short Papers)

Elementary Review:

Once an abstract has been submitted to our website, it is assigned for review by the reviewers using the abstract review sheet and validation of publication. This is based on four criteria:

1· Accepted (with minor editing changes).

2· Conditionally accepted (with revisions provided to authors).

3· Rejected but encouraged for re-submission with major modifications.

4· Rejected as inappropriate or unworthy of presentation in this certain conference.

- The criteria for accepting abstracts for the conference are as follows; a relevant topic of the conference should be proposed with clear writing, aims, and objectives of the study clearly presented as well as a sound literature and methodology of work.

Acceptance for your paper: 

After receiving an acceptance for your abstract and after the submission of your research (short paper version), the paper will enter a process for plagiarism check to ensure that the content is original. 


( Extended Papers )

After the conference, authors interested in publishing their manuscripts will be required to submit an extended version of their research papers (10-12 pages long) and they will be subject to a rigorous revision process as follows:

Uploading Full-Length Paper:

Authors who are allowed to upload their full-length paper(s) should use the same account details to upload their full paper(s).

First Acceptance:

The final paper will proceed to the primary revision to be checked if it meets the conference proceedings standards. Once it gets accepted, the author will be informed to pay the fees so that it could be sent for the final revision by the scientific committee.

Payment:

In this step, and to proceed paper(s) that passed to final revision process and to get the final approval, authors have to pay the requested fees. Otherwise, the final revision process will not be considered for their papers.

Inspections and Final Approval of Full Papers:

The full papers that paid the requested fees will get finally inspected, either scientifically or linguistically. There will be a rigorous review process of full papers following the previous process according to the following criteria:

(1) Is the topic relevant to the conference?

(2) Are the writing and structure clear?

(3) Are graphics, photos, illustrations used where needed?

(4) Are the aims of the study clearly stated?

(5) Are the objectives of the study achieved?

(6) Is the literature review relevant and adequate?

(7) Has the author used the appropriate methodology and explained them clearly?

(8) Has the author interpreted the findings correctly?

(9) Is the paper a significant contribution to the field?

These are the registration and revision procedures for publication that all authors should follow.

Publishing

All accepted papers of the fourth Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) after the peer-review process will be either published as chapters in the Book Series “Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation” (ASTI) by Springer or in The International Journal of Academic Research Community Publication (ARChive) online by IEREK Press.

The ASTI Book Series by Springer is by highly professional members of an International Editorial Board to ensure a high-quality publication material to be eventually published online and printable.

The ASTI Book Series will be submitted for indexation in Web of Science (ISI), EI-Compendex, and Scopus databases.

        

Important Note:

To publish your research in the online Journal or Book by 'Springer' and provide it with world-wide visibility, authors must submit an extended version of their short papers that are 10 -12 pages long.

Note that only authors of accepted papers who will register before the deadline of 12 September 2019 will be allowed to present during the conference sessions (see Important Dates and Conference Fees). 

  • The proceedings of the 2nd Conference of Cities Idenitity Through Architecture and Arts, (2nd CITAA) are published in the ASTI book titled “Cities' Identity Through Architecture and Arts” published by Springer. As for the rest of the proceedings they are published online in the international journal of Proceedings of Science and Technology (Resourceedings).
  • The 3rd Edition of the Conference had the ISBN "978/977-85525-2-2" and the proceedings will be published in the ASTI Book titled "Cities’ Vocabularies, The Influences and Formations" published by Springer.

If you are not sure whether you or one of your co-authors will be able to attend the conference, you should bear in mind that there is a fee to be paid for Audiences (Co-authors, Learners, and Interests). The accepted paper will not be included in the conference proceedings without paying the fee (see Conference Fees for more details). A research paper fee allows only one author, whether main or co-author, to attend the conference and receive only one copy of the conference proceedings book in both hard and soft copies. Extras can be requested for a fee shown below.

The proceedings of the 4th Cities’ Identity Through Architecture and Arts (CITAA) will consist of many sections (or Parts), edited by a group of highly esteemed professors from our scientific committee.

About Asti

Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation Book Series
IEREK Series for Interdisciplinary Studies

Springer:

- On 10 May 1842 (his 25th birthday), Julius Springer founded his bookstore and publishing house in Berlin, laying the foundation for today’s company.

- After 175 dynamic years, the name Springer stands for a globally active publisher dedicated to the advancement of science, putting its authors and editors at the heart of the company’s publishing activities.

- Springer is a leading global scientific, technical and medical portfolio, providing researchers in academia, scientific institutions and corporate R&D departments with quality content through innovative information, products and services.

- Springer has one of the strongest STM and HSS eBook collections and archives, as well as a comprehensive range of hybrid and open access journals.

- Springer is part of Springer Nature, a global publisher that serves and supports the research community. Springer Nature aims to advance discovery by publishing robust and insightful science, supporting the development of new areas of research and making ideas and knowledge accessible around the world.

- As part of Springer Nature, Springer sits alongside other trusted brands like Nature Research, BioMed Central, and Palgrave Macmillan.

About the Series:

Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (ASTI) is a series of peer-reviewed books based on the best studies on emerging research that redefines existing disciplinary boundaries in science, technology, and innovation (STI) in order to develop integrated concepts for sustainable development. The series is mainly based on the best research papers from various IEREK and other international conferences or direct submissions and is intended to promote the creation and development of viable solutions for a sustainable future and a positive societal transformation with the help of integrated and innovative science-based approaches. Offering interdisciplinary coverage, the series presents innovative approaches and highlights how they can best support both the economic and sustainable development for the welfare of all societies. In particular, the series includes conceptual and empirical contributions from different interrelated fields of science, technology, and innovation that focus on providing practical solutions to ensure food, water, and energy security. It also presents new case studies offering concrete examples of how to resolve sustainable urbanization and environmental issues. The series is addressed to professionals in research and teaching, consultancies and industry, and government and international organizations. Published in collaboration with Springer, the IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development will acquaint readers with essential new studies in STI for sustainable development.

Publication

Publishing your paper with a reputable and renowned publisher is necessary to maintain the high quality standards of the scientific process along with retaining your copyright. It is even more advantageous to increase the exposure of your paper to the rest of the scientific community either online, offline, or in both versions.

All of the papers present in the book either belong to the best research papers in IEREK’s conferences or the authors’ direct submissions.Fees for direct submission: - The revision process: 200$ (nonrefundable)- Once the paper is accepted and approved: 200$.

Click on the below image to learn more about the editors

Authors' Instructions

Short Papers

To download the writing template for a Short paper,Click here 
Extended Papers 
 
- Abstracts should clearly state the purpose, results, and conclusions of the work to be described in the final paper.

- After you have received the acceptance of your abstract, please continue to write your full paper with the requested template (please download from the link provided below).

Note:

Final acceptance will be based on the full-length paper. For publication, the accepted papers must be presented at the conference.

Writing Templates: Authors are strongly encouraged to use the formatting style described below for submitting an abstract as this format is required for the full paper.

- English will be the official language.


To download the writing template for a full-length paper,Click here

Abstract and full paper submission instructions,Click here

English Editing Service

- IEREK provides you the English Review service; where we will be responsible for the language review process of your paper. This service will get your paper revised in terms of grammar, punctuation, and language structure; without changing the scientific content.

- This service will ensure you have the perfect language structure, to get your perfect paper published. This will help you increase the number of citations and make it easier for others access the information provided in your paper.

Fees for the editing process:

Paper Pages Papers 4-5 pages long Papers 8-12 pages long
Editing fees 80$ 150$

If you are interested in getting this service, please email us your paper on: editing@ierek.com

Important Dates
Title Date
Abstract Submissions Deadline 08 Mar 2020
Last Notification for Abstract Acceptance 07 May 2020
Full Paper Submission Deadline 07 Jul 2020
Last Notification for Full-Paper Acceptance 07 Aug 2020
Early Payment Deadline 07 Jul 2020
Regular Payment Deadline 07 Aug 2020
Late Payment Deadline 26 Oct 2020
Letter of Visa (for delegates who need visa entry) 07 Aug 2020
Letter of Final Acceptance 07 Aug 2020
Conference Program 07 Oct 2020
Conference Launch 26 Oct 2020
Conference Fees

Instructions

- Each research paper should have one main author who should pay the full fee (Author fees) regardless of attendance.

- Each co-author (1-5 max) has his/her own separate fees to pay as shown in a table below.

- A research paper fee allows only one author, whether main or co-author, to attend the conference and receive only one copy of the conference proceedings book in both hard and soft copies. Extras can be requested for a fee shown below.

Loyalty Membership Discounts

The more you attend, the more you're rewarded! 
IEREK offers its loyal participants with the following discounts depending on his/her attendance: 

Attendance Second Third Fourth  Fifth
Discount 5% 10%  15% 20%

*The aforementioned discounts are only applicable during Regular and Late Payment times. For more information, please refer to 'Important Dates'.


Conference Fees:

Author Fees (Short Paper)
Short-Paper consists of 4 – 5 pages, and suits researches that make significant contributions, but still in progress or can be reported briefly.

Author fees for Early Payment EUR 250
Author fees for Regular Payment EUR 300
Author fees for Late Payment EUR 400

Author Fees (Full Paper)
Full-Paper is the basic standard peer-reviewed paper and often consists of 8 - 12 pages

Author fees for Early Payment EUR 400
Author fees for Regular Payment EUR 500
Author fees for Late Payment EUR 600

Regular Attendance Fees 

Fees for Audiences (Co-authors, Learners, and Interests) EUR 250
Fees for NON-Attending Co-Authors EUR 50

Extra Fees (upon request) 

Additional Conference Book (Hard copy + CD)

* In addition to 1 free copy gifted to main authors, additional copies are available for the fee mentioned.

EUR 100

Springer/Journal Publication (Extended Paper)

* In cases of selection/consideration for publication, short papers must be extended and the additional payment, for extension, completed.

EUR 200

 

Benefits Of Attending

Since conferences are the places where new science results are typically first presented so, it helps you sharpen the saw, meet experts & influencers face to face, learning in a new space, build your Knowledge base, expand your resources and grow your professional network. Yet attending conferences organized by IEREK will not only helps you gain previous benefits but also can be very rewarding on the professional level due to below reasons:

1. Open Discussions: We bring together leading academic scientists to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Smart Cities Development. Furthermore, you get to converse with other researchers from different universities and countries. You learn from experts in the field. It is a great opportunity to find more about your field and listen to ideas that could help inspire research ideas of your own.

2. Internationally Accredited Certificate: The Participants are granted internationally recognized certificates which will be added to their certificates of experience or could be presented to the official authorities concerned.

3. Publication: The conference proceedings will be published by one or more journals since Authors can choose to publish their research paper either in ARChive International Journal of Science hosted by IEREK Press or "SSRN" by "ELSEVIER". Besides, High-quality manuscripts based on scientific committee evaluation will be published either in Environmental Sciences & Sustainable Development (ESSD) by IEREK Press or a book series by "Springer".

4. Research Technologies: Conferences also can expand your resources by providing a great opportunity to promote gathered information on new technologies related to your research. Moreover, they let you test them out, share teaching tools and techniques, or even obtain samples of textbooks.

5. Networking: Conferences help in networking which often increases your chances of collaboration in future projects. As you can engage with respectable professors and discuss with them the very latest research projects they could be working on.

6. Academic Reputation: Attending many conferences will make you a known figure in academic circles, not to mention the benefits for your C.V as it will create an impression that you are an active member of the academic community.

7. Conference Proceedings Material: Delegates will have the choice of receiving the conference proceedings as either a hardcover book or in digital format on a CD. The CD will additionally contain proceedings from previous conferences in this series.

8. Venue: Getting an overview of the place or city where the conference is being held and learning about its people and culture.

Moreover, all conference papers are archived online in the E-Library of IEREK‘s website where they are immediately and permanently available to the international scientific community.

Plagiarism Policy

- IEREK has an unyielding policy regarding plagiarism. We believe that copying/taking the ideas and work of other Authors without permission and credit is fraudulent.

- The Reviewing committee and IEREK employees have the authority to reject a paper during its reviewing process, on the basis of the paper being subjected to either minor or major plagiarism.

- Duplicating any content, even if it is one sentence or one table without the consent of its original Author, will lead to the paper’s refusal upon the complaint of the plagiarism victim.

Previous Editions

With success, the third edition of international conference on Cities Identity through Architecture & Arts (CITAA) was organized and held in the University of Pisa of Italy from the 11th and until the 13th of September 2019.

Covering an array of topics, the conference discussed the influence of Architecture and the Arts in shaping the identities of cities as well as their influence on the quality of life. Concepts of City Identity and Branding, Urban Growth and Development, Spatial Transformation, Conservation of Heritage, Tourism and more were topics of discussion and research.

Opening Session

An opening ceremony marked the start of the conference, which included a 'greetings and communications' session by the institutions during which words were given by:

Prof. Ing. Alberto Landi, the president of the School of Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy.

Prof. Luca Lanini, D.E.S.T.E.C, Department of Energy Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy.

Prof. Ferdinando Trapani, Department of Architecture, University of Palermo, Italy & Coordinator of Academic Support between IEREK and Italian Universities.

Dr. Mourad Amer, PhD, President and CEO of IEREK.

Prof. Francesco Molinari, Department of Architecture, University of Florence & Conference Chair

Following the eloquence with which they delivered their messages, our keynote speakers then drove the conference’s main theme by delivering their lectures:

Prof. Francesco Molinari, International Researcher & Project Manager: Innovation in Culture & ICT relationship

Prof. Edmond Manahasa, Department of Architecture, Epoka University: "A new approach in defining urban identity"

Prof. Luca Lanini, D.E.S.Te.C., Università di Pisa: “Designing the Future. Art, Architecture and City in the Work of Ivan Leonidov”

Prof. Elisabetta Di Stefano, Department of Humanities, Università di Palermo: "City's Identity and Aesthetics of Atmospheres"

Valentina Gensini, Director of the Contemporary Art Centre Le Murate. Progetti Arte Contemporanea, Florence: "Uncomfortable Heritage: Le Murate and the RIVA Project as experiences of urban re-appropriation"

 

Conference Parallel Sessions

Held in parallel to one another, the sessions were split into 5 sessions over a duration of two days as follows:

Session 1: The City’s Image and Self-identity
Moderators: Prof. Valerio Cutini, Prof. Luca Lanini

Session 2: Urban Growth & Design: Its Impact on the City’s Image
Moderators: Prof. Mario Giorgio Bevilacqua, Prof. Ferdinando Trapani

Session 3: Local Architecture & Shaping the City’s Identity
Moderators: Prof. Lina Malfona, Valentina Gensini

Session 4: Urban Morphology & Spatial Transformation
Moderators: Prof. Elisabetta Di Stefano, Dr. Arch. Ludovica Marinaro

Session 5: Conservation of Urban Heritage Areas
Moderators: Prof. Francesco Alberti, Dr. Arch. Giovanni Pescarmona

 

Closing Session

The Plenary session of the conference was concluded with an enlightening Lecture delivered by the conference chair, prof. Francesco Alberti, with the title of “Life between Monuments: Local Identity & Global Tourism in the Historic Neighborhood of San Lorenzo in Florence”. The final session then incorporated a general discussion of the presented research as well as final remarks and future plans by the session moderators, conference chair and keynote speakers. A final ceremony and delivery of the certificates was held in gratitude of the informative contributions made by the attendees.

Visa Application

- For participants who need Entry Visas, IEREK will issue a visa letter for applicants who are accepted to present at our conferences.

- Please notice that we will endeavor to assist you in obtaining a visa but the responsibility is yours and the decision rests solely with the appropriate Embassy.

Conference Venue

Pisa, Italy.

Your Trip To Pisa, Italy

Pisa is a legendary city and one of the most famous in this region of Italy. Tourists often stop at Pisa en-route to Florence but it is a fantastic city to stay in and offers a great deal more sites than just it’s legendary leaning tower. Located on the western coast of Italy, Pisa is only 20 minutes from the Ligurian Sea and has great transport links to Florence, Livorno and La Spezia. With a population of just 91,000 it is one of the smaller cities in the Tuscany region of Italy, but has historically been one of the most important and influential cities.

The following are some suggestions of places to visit while you are in Pisa, Italy.

1.Leaning Tower

You have to admit - the Leaning Tower of Pisa does look a bit odd in real life, but that's what makes it a fun and perfect spot for a selfie!

2.Pisa Cathedral

This is the less well-known but more grand building attached to the Leaning Tower of Pisa! Inside, you'll see Galileo's Lamp, very impressive frescoes, and intricate marble work.

3.Casciano Baths

Over one thousand years old, this spa's relaxing properties are just as potent today as they were back when it was built. The natural spring water, Acqua Mathelda, is mineral-rich and promotes dilation of the blood vessels.

4.Keith Haring mural

Pisa offers much more to see beyond its well-known Renaissance art. In the 1980s, legendary New York artist Keith Haring was so enamored with the city that he painted a mural inspired by his admiration. Look out for it- hidden off Piazza Vittorrio Emanuele II.

5.University Botanical Garden

Established in 1544, this was the first university botanical garden in Europe. Enjoy its greenery and open air buildings!

6.Museum of San. Matteo

A relatively well-kept secret, this small museum houses most of the original art from Pisa's historical buildings.

 

Airport & Nearest Bus Station

The nearest international airport to the università di pisa is Pisa International Airport.

If you prefer to use bus to reach the conference venue, the closest bus station to the Pisa International Airport is PisMover Bus Station, Piazzale Corradino D'Ascanio.

Check Google Maps Direction from Pisa International Airport to università di pisa using public transportation.

Conference Program
DAY 1 07 Jul 2020
08:00—9:30 Arrival and Registration
09:30—11:30 Opening session
11:30—12:00 Coffee Break
12:00—12:30 KEYNOTE 1
12:30—13:00 KEYNOTE 2
13:00—13:30 KEYNOTE 3
13:30—14:00 KEYNOTE 4
14:00—14:30 KEYNOTE 5
14:30—15:15 Lunch
15:15—18:45

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DAY 2 08 Jul 2020
09:00—11:20

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11:40—14:00 Coffee Break
14:00—15:40

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16:00—16:20 Lunch
16:20—19:00

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20:00—23:00 Gala Dinner
DAY 3 09 Jul 2020
09:00—10:40

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11:00—11:30 Coffee Break
11:20—11:40

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12:40—13:30 Chairman Word
12:40—13:30 Closing Ceremony
Refund Policy

Please note that we will endeavor to assist you in obtaining a visa if needed, by sending an invitation letter, but the responsibility is yours and the decision rests solely with the appropriate Embassy.

Delegates in any event who cancel their registration due to special circumstances for any reason will receive refunds according to the following plan and according to the number of days from the start of the event:

Cancellation Policy Up to 60 days before the event Up to 50 days before the event Up to 40 days before the event 39 days before the event
Penalty 20% 50% 70% 100%

EXCEPTION

A refund is not possible if

- An acceptance letter has been issued (Authors only)

- The proceedings of the event have been published (Authors only)

- All matters have been finalized (accommodation/travel expenses paid for)

Visa Rejection Cases

Reason and proof of rejection must be submitted. If the reason for rejection is due to an error on our part, the participant will be refunded their full fee with a deduction of a 20% administration fee.

Documents to be issued by IEREK to acquire a visa are as follows:

* Final Acceptance Letter (Authors only)

* Visa Invitation Letter

* I nvoice/proof of payment

We encourage all authors and attendees to ensure their having acquired all documents (those applicable) mentioned.

If the reason for rejection is not related to any of the aforementioned and is an error on the participant’s part, the following will apply:

* Authors: may choose to let their co-author present his/her research on his/her behalf free of charge. If the author does not have a co-author, a member of the scientific committee shall present on the author’s behalf.

* Audience members/Registrants: will only be allowed to attend another similar event of their choosing that is organized by IEREK free of charge.