The field of geographic sciences takes many forms and has been continuously evolving over the years. Physical geography specifically deals with aspects of climate, weather, wind currents, and aquatic movements. A subfield of physical geography is the field of climatology. As a recently established field under the umbrella of geographic sciences, climatology aims to address the continuous damage mankind is inflicting upon the earth’s natural atmosphere, weather, and climate by studying its causes, effects, and practical mitigation techniques.
Developments in the field are becoming increasingly needed by the day, as the devastating effects of climate change take hold, and are unleashed upon cities, and human settlements. The biggest offender that contributes to the threat of climate change is the consumption of fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources of energy, namely to meet the rising demand for energy in urban environments. In pursuit of technological advancement, economic prowess, and global success, many cities have turned a blind eye to the harmful effects of unsustainable practices in urban development. These practices cost the world, and the cities, their respective livability, habitability, and continuity. They are short-term solutions to long-term problems.
1. Applications of Climatology in Urbanism
1.1. Urban Mapping and Environmental Spatial Data Analysis 1.2. Satellite Imaging and Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Effects 1.3. Effect of Weather Variability on Agriculture & Vegetation in Cities 1.4. Natural Ventilation and Airflow in Urban Environments 1.5. Climatic Factors Influencing Urban Planning and Development 1.6. Mitigation of the Heat Island Effect in Urbanism 1.7. Hydrology in an Urban Context 1.8. Energetic Communities for Sustainability
2. Meteorology and Disaster Prevention in Urban and Rural Environments
2.1. Weather Forecasting and Predictive Analysis 2.2. Pre-emptive Warnings and Precautions 2.3. Monitoring Atmospheric Pollution and Particulate Matter Concentration in Cities 2.4. Innovations in Emergency Response Tools 2.5. Urban Climate and Decarbonization 2.6. Climate Change: Risk Assessment 2.7. Forestry and Agriculture to Mitigate Climate Change 2.8. Circular Economy in Urban and Rural Areas
3. Climatic Impacts and Response Methods in Rural Environments
3.1. Geographic Obstacles Hindering Rural Areas’ Climatic Adaptation 3.2. Rural to Urban Migration and Social Geographic Shifts as a Result of Climate Change 3.3. Climatology within a Rural Context 3.4. Ecological Geographic Shifts and Natural Habitat Destruction in Rural Areas due to Climate Change 3.5. Rural Economies’ Influence on Climatic Adaptation 3.6. Governmental Policies, and NGO’s Influence on Rural Climatic Adaptation
4. Environmental Impacts on Human Geography and Culture
4.1. Cultural Habits and Their Environmental Effects 4.2. Social Norms’ Contributions to Climate Change Mitigation 4.3. Reciprocal Environmental Relation Establishment 4.4. Revitalization of Green Public Spaces and Livability in Cities 4.5. Integration of Greenery in Urban Development 4.6. Creative Expression and Media for Promoting Climate Change Awareness
5. Sustainable Transportation and Transit Systems
5.1. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint of Urban Transportation Systems 5.2. Utilization of Geographic Data and GIS in Transit System Design 5.3. Shifting Away from Automobile Reliance 5.4. Designing Pedestrian-Centric Urban Environments 5.5. Sustainable Pathways of the City
6. Sustainable Governmental Policy and Leadership
6.1. Governmental Influence Towards Carbon Neutrality in Cities 6.2. Implementation of Sustainable Energy Infrastructures and Networks 6.3. Geographic Measurement, Assessment, and Analysis Tools and Design Methods 6.4. Data-driven Green Policy and Decision making 6.5. Food Policies in Urban Space