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Computer Networking

Computer networking is considered a branch of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering.

Computer network is a telecommunications network which allows nodes that originate, route and terminate the data to send it. Through computer networks, connected computers exchange data with each other using a link. The nodes connect with each other using either cable media , wireless media or internet.

Nodes include personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware.

If two or more of those devices are being able to exchange information with each other, then they will be said to be networked together.

Access to the World Wide Web, digital video and audio, applications, printers, fax , email and instant messages as well as many others are forms of applications and services of computer networks.

Communications protocols are used to organize network traffic, topology, the network’s size and organizational intent , as the transmission medium used to carry the signals of computer networks is different from one to another.

But in most cases, application communications protocols are payload over each other. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.

Usage of Computer network:

  • A computer network ease communications between users allowing them to communicate efficiently and easily via different forms such as: email, chat rooms, telephone, video calls, and video conferencing.
  • As well as providing access to information on shared storage devices by sharing files, data, and other types of information.
  • Users may use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer.
  • A computer network prevents computer crackers from accessing the network via a denial of service attack , but also it may be used by them to spread viruses or worms on devices connected.

Network Sections:

  1. Wired technologies
    • Coaxial cable (the slowest transition speed) is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire which is surrounded by an insulating layer, which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer, this insulation helps minimize intervention and confusion.Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.
    • ITU-T G.hn technology uses existing home wiring (coaxial cable, phone lines and power lines) to create a high-speed local area network.
    • Twisted pair wire is the most widely used medium for all telecommunication.Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs to reduce crosstalk and electromagnetic induction.

      The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second. Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP).

    • Optical fiber (The fastest transmission speed) is a glass fiber. It carries pulses of light that represent data. Optical fibers over metal wires are very low transmission loss and immunity from electrical interference.It can carry multiple wavelengths of light, which greatly increases the rate that data can be sent, and helps enable data rates of up to trillions of bits per second.

      It can be used for long runs of cable carrying very high data rates, and are used for undersea cables to interconnect continents.

  2. Wireless technologies
    • Communications satellites are Satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth’s atmosphere.The satellites are existing in space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) above the equator.

      It sends voice, data, and TV signals.

    • Cellular uses several radio communications technologies.It divides the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area.
    Types of Wireless Networks
    1. Wireless-LANA wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices over a short distance using a wireless distribution method, usually providing a connection through an access point for internet access.
    2. Wireless-PANWireless personal area networks (WPANs) interconnect devices within a relatively small area, that is generally within a person’s reach. For example, Bluetooth and infrared light provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop.
    3. Wireless-MANWireless metropolitan area networks are a type of wireless network that connects several wireless LANs.
    4. Wireless WANWireless wide area networks are wireless networks that typically cover large areas, such as between close towns and cities, or between city and outskirt. These networks can be used to connect branch offices of business or as a public Internet access system.

 

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Al-Azhar

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