Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques - 5th Edition
Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques - 5th Edition

Call For Abstracts

  • 10, Oct / 12, Oct 2024
  • In collaboration with University of East London
Conference Email

The process of breaking down a problem into small pieces and solving these individually makes solving big problems seem easier and faster. For example, using a multi-processor in solving small problems is much more efficient than using a single processor in solving a big. This is what gave birth to the idea of parallelism. The concept has then started taking a priority in many fields of study, including architecture, cloud computing, and programming to name a few.

Another concept that was introduced in the last few years is parametricism. This is a concept in architecture based on algorithms and computer technology. It appeared in the late 90s but really took off in the early years of the 21st century. Coined by Patrick Schumacher, parametric design approaches have helped architectures solve major issues using computer techniques and give birth to magnificent architecture with, what was nearly impossible, many curves and non-rectilinear shapes

One of the major examples from Barcelona, Spain, is Frank Gehry’s “Fish”, which is one of his parametric designs where he takes organic shapes to a whole new level. Zaha Hadid Architects are known to the world with their parametric design specialty. the Galaxy SOHO and the Beijing shopping mall are just two examples where visitors have the impression of continuous space. In New York, Santiago Calatrava pushes the architectural boundaries with his World Trade Centre Transportation Hub.

The ultimate aim of parallelism and parametricism techniques is that a computer would calculate and solve every imaginable factor to deliver a sound answer or design, which in turn achieves the architecture based on rational scientific data. With this, the complexity of architectural design, whether it is the architecture of computing electronics or that of buildings, is now becoming much easier to deal with.

This is the future, and this is why IEREK has made it into its mission to give a platform to all scientists, architects, and academics to present their latest research and ideas on parallelism since 2016. IEREK now announces the 4th Edition of the International Conference on Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering, and Computing Techniques.

IEREK extends its invitation to all interested researchers, practitioners, stakeholders, and government officials to attend and discuss the latest ideas, techniques, challenges, and solutions to help give us a better future.

The conference offers a publication in the Scopus-indexed “Advances in Science, Technology, and Innovation” (ASTI) book series by Springer.


  The 5th edition of the “Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques (PACT)” conference peers into the future of architecture and engineering, by drawing parallels between novel computing techniques, and architectural methodologies & engineering strategies. Relatively modern architectural disciplines are discussed within PACT including biomimetics, parametricism, and digital theory applications. Furthermore, PACT covers advanced concepts in architectural parallelism such as artificial intelligence utilization, additive manufacturing techniques, informatics and data analysis methods, and sustainable methods in urban design.  

Statement of Purpose

The traditional field of architecture stands much to gain from contemporary breakthroughs in modern fields of discovery such as computer science. PACT aims to drive architecture forward through drawing parallels between architectural construction, and computational techniques. Furthermore, it aims to encourage the integration of technological advancements in architectural disciplines, enriching disciplines such as biomimetics and parametricism.

Conference Topics
  • 1. Parallels in Access: Gamification, Open-source, Interfaces, and Virtual Reality

    1.1 Advanced Graphics

    1.2 Computer Vision and Applications

    1.3 Gamification Techniques and Applications

    1.4 Open-source and Accessibility

    1.5 Virtual and Augmented Reality

    1.6 Projection Mapping

  • 2. Parallels in Algorithms: Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Distributed Computing

    2.1 Distributed Computing and Data mining

    2.2 Cloud Computing

    2.3 Agent Based Methods

    2.4 Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

    2.5 High Performance Computing

    2.6 Heterogenous Architecture Systems

  • 3. Parallels in Advanced Fabrication: Large Scale Additive. Manufacturing

    3.1 Large Scale Additive Manufacturing

    3.2 Advanced Fabrication

    3.3 Robotic Fabrication

    3.4 Generative Design

    3.5 Construction Automation and Tectonics

  • 4. Parallels in Big Data: Digital Theory and New Sciences

    4.1 Digital Theory and New Sciences

    4.2 Digital Theory in Architecture

    4.3 History of Architecture and Computational Design

    4.4 Data-driven Computation

    4.5 Big Data

    4.6 New Sciences of Simulation and Optimization

  • 5. Parallels in Urbanism: Parametric Design, Theory and Urbanism

    5.1 Parametric Urbanism

    5.2 Parametric Design

    5.3 Urban Theories

    5.4 Urban Analysis and Simulations

    5.5 Sustainable Urbanism

    5.6 Smart and Future Cities

  • 6. Parallels in Construction: Materiality and Context

    6.1 Materiality and Context

    6.2 Sustainable Design

    6.3 Cities and Theories

    6.4 Construction

    6.5 Heritage Conservation and Management


All accepted papers of the Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques(5th PACT) after the peer-review process will be either published as chapters in the Book Series “Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation” (ASTI) by Springer or in The International Journal of Academic Research Community Publication (Resourceedings) online by IEREK Press.

The ASTI Book Series by Springer is by highly professional members of an International Editorial Board to ensure a high-quality publication material to be eventually published online and printable.

The ASTI Book Series is indexed Scopus and will be submitted for indexation in Web of Science (ISI) and  EI-Compendex databases. 


Important Note:

To publish your research in the online Journal or Book by 'Springer' and provide it with world-wide visibility, authors must submit an extended version of their short papers that are 8 -12 pages long. 

If you are not sure whether you or one of your co-authors will be able to attend the conference, you should bear in mind that there is a fee to be paid for Audiences (Co-authors, Learners, and Interests). The accepted paper will not be included in the conference proceedings without paying the fee (see Conference Fees for more details). A research paper fee allows only one author, whether main or co-author, to attend the conference and receive only one copy of the conference abstract book in both hard and soft copies. Extras can be requested for a fee shown below.

Asti By Springer

Publishing in ASTI by Springer (Scopus indexed)                  

After the conference, the submitted manuscripts of authors interested in publishing in the ASTI book series will undergo a rigorous peer review process resulting in a final decision made by the editors. Only accepted research will be published as a chapter in the Book Series entitled “Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation” (ASTI) by Springer. The ASTI Book Series is by managed highly professional members of an International Editorial Board to ensure high-quality material for online publication.

The ASTI Book Series is fully indexed in Scopus. Some titles have been successfully indexed or submitted for indexation in Web of Science (ISI).

About the ASTI series

Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (ASTI) is a series of peer-reviewed books based on important emerging research that redefines the current disciplinary boundaries in science, technology and innovation (STI) in order to develop integrated concepts for sustainable development. It not only discusses the progress made towards securing more resources, allocating smarter solutions, and rebalancing the relationship between nature and people, but also provides in-depth insights from comprehensive research that addresses the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) as set out by the UN for 2030.

The series draws on the best research papers from various IEREK and other international conferences to promote the creation and development of viable solutions for a sustainable future and a positive societal transformation with the help of integrated and innovative science-based approaches. Including interdisciplinary contributions, it presents innovative approaches and highlights how they can best support both economic and sustainable development, through better use of data, more effective institutions, and global, local and individual action, for the welfare of all societies.

The series particularly features conceptual and empirical contributions from various interrelated fields of science, technology and innovation, with an emphasis on digital transformation, that focus on providing practical solutions to ensure food, water and energy security to achieve the SDGs. It also presents new case studies offering concrete examples of how to resolve sustainable urbanization and environmental issues in different regions of the world.

The series is intended for professionals in research and teaching, consultancies and industry, and government and international organizations. Published in collaboration with IEREK, the Springer ASTI series will acquaint readers with essential new studies in STI for sustainable development.

About Springer:

Springer is a leading global scientific, technical and medical portfolio, providing researchers in academia, scientific institutions and corporate R&D departments with quality content through innovative information, products and services. Springer has one of the strongest STM and HSS eBook collections and archives, as well as a comprehensive range of hybrid and open access journals. Springer is part of Springer Nature, a global publisher that serves and supports the research community. Springer Nature aims to advance discovery by publishing robust and insightful science, supporting the development of new areas of research and making ideas and knowledge accessible around the world. As part of Springer Nature, Springer sits alongside other trusted brands like Nature Research, BioMed Central, and Palgrave Macmillan.

Click on the below image to learn more about the editors

Resourceedings by Ierek Press

Publishing in Resourceedings by IEREK Press                                  

Resourceedings is an open-access journal that publishes conference proceedings. Conference proceedings compromise of different disciplines, ranging from Engineering including built environments, architecture, and sustainability. Disciplines also include Technology and Energy. Resourceedings is a journal that publishes research articles that shed light on different crucial issues in order to provide them with solutions and suggestions. The journal publishes articles submitted by researchers of interest in different fields.

Resourceedings welcomes diverse approaches to innovative ideas that could potentially be a breakthrough in a particular field of study. To provide permanent archiving, Resourceedings is archived in the collaborative digital preservation archiving systems in LOCKSS, as they provide access to permanent and authorized digital content for electronic scholarly journals.

In accordance with the definition of open access journal provided by BOAI, Resourceedings is a model of the fully open journal that allows global open access to its content which is freely available without charge to users and institutions. They are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose for non-commercial use, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.

Conference Venue

University of East London (UEL)

University Way, Dockland Campus

London, E16 2RD, UK

University of East London, University Way, London, United Kingdom


Participants’ Instructions


To help the organizers plan for inter-disciplinary dialogue, participants are requested to choose from the conference themes/ Topics upon registration.

They must also refer to, and abide by, the following instructions in registering and submitting their abstracts/ papers:

Types of Participation

  1. Attend/ Present Virtually and Publish in Conference proceedings (Short Paper)

Organized from the comfort of your own home, the conference offers a virtual attendance option for your convenience. That said, participants will have a chance to present their abstract/research, online, and have their work considered for publication in the proceedings.

Virtual presenters are required to submit an abstract and extend this abstract following the “author instructions” below and before the deadline (see Important Dates). At least one author must pay the registration fee (see Conference Fees).

For any reason, authors may wish to submit pre-recorded video presentations no later than 15 days prior to the conference. Alternatively, they may wish to record a voice-over PowerPoint presentation for submission to the conference organizers.

  1. Attend/ Present in-person and Publish in indexed Conference proceedings (Short Paper)

Organized on the Campus of University of East London (UEL), London, UK, offering a Physical attendance option for your convenience. That said, participants will have a chance to present their abstract/research, on campus, and have their work considered for publication in the ASTI Series by Springer as part of the conference proceedings.

See Author Instructions and Conference Fees for more information.

  1. Registration to publish in the proceedings (Short Paper) without presenting/ attending

If your extended abstract (short paper) is accepted, it may be published in the conference proceedings book in the Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation Book Series by Springer (indexed in Scopus) even if you are not attending the conference. In this case, the accepted work will not be included in the final conference program and the fee will cover the cost of editorial handling and peer-review evaluation of your paper (See Author Instructions and Publishing Opportunities)

  1. Non-presenting participant

Non-presenting participants may also wish to attend the conference as Audience Members or Co-authors contributing to an already submitted abstract/ paper.

Authors' Instructions

Important Note:

IEREK has an unyielding policy regarding plagiarism. We believe that copying/taking the ideas and work of other Authors without permission and credit is fraudulent. The Reviewing committee and IEREK employees have the authority to reject a paper during its reviewing process, on the basis of the paper being subjected to either minor or major plagiarism.

Authors must refer to, and abide by, the following instructions in submitting their abstracts/ papers:

Step 1: Abstract Submission Process

- The author should prepare and submit an Abstract (250 300 words) through the website and before the abstract submission deadline.

- The abstract should clearly state the purpose, results, and conclusions of the work to be described in the final paper.

- The author should select the most relevant topic for the paper from the corresponding conference topics.

- The author can use/download an abstract writing template to submit the abstract file accordingly.

To download the Abstract Writing Template, Click Here

Step 2: Abstract Review

- Upon submission, an abstract will undergo a preliminary evaluation process by members of our scientific committee.

-A relevant topic of the conference should be proposed with clear writing, aims, and objectives of the study clearly presented and sound literature and methodology of the work.

- The author will receive a notification by email, within 2 weeks, of:

  • Approval, after which they will be requested to prepare and submit their full/short paper submissions.
  • Rejection, if the topic proposed does not fit the theme of the conference.

Step 3: Paper Submission & Preliminary Review

There are 2 types of paper submission at this conference:

  • Short Paper 
  • Full/Long Paper 

Short Paper:

- A short paper submission consists of 4–5 pages and suits researches that make significant contributions, but still in progress or can be reported briefly.

- The structure of a short paper should contain its abstract, keywords, introduction, problem statements, and the hypothetical solution along with further studies that they will go through when they want to extend their paper to be published online.

- A short paper is only included in the conference Abstracts book and will not have a chance to be published online by Springer or by IEREK’s Journals unless the author extends their work to a full-length paper and pay the corresponding fee.

Full-Length Paper:

- The Full/ Long paper submission is 8 – 12+ pages in length.

- The full paper should state the major issue(s) addressed, the potential significance of the work, the theoretical and methodological approach(es) pursued, major findings, conclusions, implications, and relevant scholarly references.

- A full/long paper will be included in the conference abstracts book as well as get published online by Springer or by IEREK PRESS Journals.

- The author should submit the full/short paper written on the writing template, through our online system before the paper submission deadline.

- The full/short paper should be written in English as it's the official language of the conference.

Step 4: Similarity Check/ Plagiarism Detection

All Chapters will be screened for similarity using iThenticate; a Turnitin Plagiarism detection software, used for academic publishers. Springer Similarity guidelines are as follows:

  • Max. % from all sources: 10-15%
  • Max. % from one source: 3-5%
  • Higher than 30% (all sources): Reject completely
  • Lower than 30% (all sources): Ask for revision to decrease the similarities  

To download Paper Writing Template,   Click Here

Step 5: Payment Completion & Confirmation

Once Preliminary approval for presentation at the conference and/or consideration for publication is granted, authors will be expected to complete payment in reference to the Conference Fees.

In this phase of revision, the research paper will be evaluated based on its originality, structure, and relativity to the conference theme. If the paper gets acceptance by one reviewer, a paper preliminary acceptance notification will be sent to the author accordingly.

- As soon as payment is confirmed and done successfully, corresponding official documents can be issued from our end such as:

  • A signed/stamped preliminary acceptance letter
  • Receipt of Payment
  • Visa Invitation Letter

Step 6: Rigorous Peer Review Process (Full-length papers only)

Only after payment is confirmed,

- and the full paper submission deadline is reached, a submitted full-length paper is assigned to an Editor from the Editorial Board, in alignment with IEREK’s revision SOP (double-blind process).

- Each paper/ chapter is evaluated by a minimum of two reviewers, after which a final decision by the responsible Editor is made. There is no maximum to the number of times a paper can be reviewed, depending on the quality of the submission.

- Once a decision is made by the Editors, IEREK Editors will communicate one of the following three final decisions:

  • Accepted without comments
  • Revise and Resubmit – Minor or Major revision
  • Final Rejection

- If modifications are in order, authors will be sent the relevant instructions and a deadline will be set. Missed deadlines may result in complete exclusion from the final publication/ final rejection.

- A back and forth process, modifications will be sent back to the responsible Editor/ Series Editor and another round of evaluation conducted.

Important Dates
Title Date
Abstract Submissions Deadline 13 Apr 2024
Last Notification for Abstract Acceptance 13 May 2024
Full Paper Submission Deadline 12 Jul 2024
Last Notification for Full-Paper Acceptance 11 Aug 2024
Early Payment Deadline 12 Jul 2024
Regular Payment Deadline 11 Aug 2024
Late Payment Deadline 10 Sep 2024
Letter of Visa (for delegates who need visa entry) 11 Aug 2024
Letter of Final Acceptance 11 Aug 2024
Conference Program 10 Sep 2024
Conference Launch 10 Oct 2024
Benefits Of Attending

Attending conferences is very beneficial, especially, on the professional level; conferences are full of people promoting new ideas which will expand your knowledge and undoubtedly help your career.

  • Open Discussions:We bring together leading academic scientists to exchange and share their experiences and research results in all fields. Furthermore, you get to converse with other researchers from different universities and countries. You learn from experts in the field. It is a great opportunity to find more about your field and listen to ideas that could help inspire research ideas of your own.

  • Internationally Accredited Certificate:The participants are granted internationally recognized certificates which will be added to their certificates of experience or could be presented to the official authorities concerned.

  • Publication: The conference proceedings will be published by one of IEREK Press' Journals, either in "Resourceedings" or "ARChive". High-quality manuscripts, based on scientific committee evaluation, will get the chance to be published either in Environmental Sciences & Sustainable Development (ESSD) by IEREK Press or as a book chapter in the ASTI book series by "Springer".

  • Research Technologies:Conferences also can expand your resources by providing a great opportunity to promote gathered information on new technologies related to your research. Moreover, they let you test them out, share teaching tools and techniques, or even obtain samples of textbooks.

  • Networking:Conferences help in networking which often increases your chances of collaboration in future projects. As you can engage with respectable professors and discuss with them the very latest research projects they could be working on.

  • Academic Reputation:Attending many conferences will make you a known figure in academic circles, not to mention the benefits for your C.V as it will show that you are an active member of the academic community.

  • Conference Proceedings Material:Delegates will have the choice of receiving the conference proceedings as either a hardcover book or in digital format on a CD. The CD will additionally contain proceedings from previous conferences in this series.

Moreover, all conference papers are archived online in the E-Library of IEREK‘s website where they are immediately and permanently available to the international scientific community.

Refund Policy

 A.Physical Attendance

Delegates in any event who cancel their registration due to special circumstances will receive refunds according to the following plan:

Cancellation Policy

Up to 60 days before the event

Up to 50 days before the event

Up to 40 days before the event

39 days before the event







A refund is not possible if

-An acceptance letter has been issued (Authors only)

-The proceedings of the event have been published (Authors only)

-All matters have been finalized (accommodation/travel expenses paid for)

Visa Rejection Cases

Reason and proof of rejection must be submitted. If the reason for rejection is due to an error on our part, the participant will be refunded their full fee with a deduction of a 20% administration fee.

Documents to be issued by IEREK to acquire a visa are as follows:

*Final Acceptance Letter (Authors only)

*Visa Invitation Letter

*Invoice/proof of payment

We encourage all authors and attendees to ensure their having acquired all documents (those applicable) mentioned.

If the reason for rejection is not related to any of the aforementioned and is an error on the participant’s part, the following will apply:

*Authors: may choose to let their co-author present his/her research on his/her behalf free of charge. If the author does not have a co-author, a member of the scientific committee shall present on the author’s behalf.

*Audience members/Registrants: will only be allowed to attend another similar event of their choosing that is organized by IEREK free of charge.

 B.Online Attendance

Delegates in any event who cancel their registration due to special circumstances will receive refunds according to the following:

Cancellation Policy

Up to 60 days before the event

59 days before the event




A refund is not possible if

- An acceptance letter has been issued (Authors only)

- The proceedings of the event have been published (Authors only)

- A submitted manuscript is rejected by the editorial board after going through peer review.

Previous Publications

For IEREK's Previous Publications, Please Click here

Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques (PACT) – 1st Edition held in London, UK in September 2016.

Taylor & Francis

International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems.

Volume 32, Issue sup1 (2017)
(Selected Papers) Publication link:


Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques (PACT) – 2nd Edition held in London, UK in October 2018.


Environmental Sciences and Sustainable Development (ESSD)

Vol 3, issue #2 (2018): Sustainable Engineering: Issues and Solutions
Publication link:


Environmental Sciences and Sustainable Development (ESSD)

Vol 4, issue #1 (2019): Improving Sustainability Concept: From Theories to Successful Practices (Special Issue)
Publication link:


Parallelism in Architecture, Engineering & Computing Techniques (PACT) – 3rd Edition held as an online conference in collaboration with the University of East London in October 2020.


Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (ASTI) Series.

Advances in Architecture, Engineering, and Technology - 2nd Edition
Publication link: (In Press)


Your Trip To London

London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom. It’s considered as one of the world’s most important, sustainable, visited cities. London contains many Heritage and Cultural sites like The Tower of London, St Paul’s Cathedral and London Eye. Here are some of the interesting things to do while visiting London.

  • Tower of London

The Tower of London is one of the world’s most leading tourist attractions and a world heritage site which attracts visitors from all over the world. It’s located on the north bank of the River Thames on the border with the central city of London.

  • The British Museum

The British Museum is a unique museum that brings together the cultures of the world, continents, spanning and oceans under one roof, not like any other museum’s collections have the same breadth, beauty, depth, and significance. It has about eight million objects which allow us to discover many forms of expressions from the ancient world and explore the extraordinary diversity of human cultures from different communities and empires.

  • St Paul's Cathedral

The Cathedral was constructed in the 11th century and now It’s one of the most famous sights of London. It’s iconic building is the second-largest building in the United Kingdom after Liverpool Cathedral.

  • The London Eye

Coca-Cola London Eye trip is a must-do and has been the visitor’s number one experience for over a decade since it was Built to mark London's millennium celebrations in 2000. Once you step into your capsule you will feel the exhilaration as you rise up over the River Thames. With rising 443 feet over the Thames, your trip will last for only 30 minutes, but you will enjoy seeing spectacular views from your individual glass capsule like Big Ben and the houses of Parliament.

Travel Information

London Biggin Hill Airport (BQH - EGKB)
30.5M From UEL University / 47 minutes by Car
Address: Main Rd, Biggin Hill TN16 3BH, United Kingdom

London City Airport Minicabs
2.8M from UEL University / 10 minutes by Car
Address: 578 Barking Rd, London E13 9JU, United Kingdom

London City Airport
2.1M from UEL University / 5 minutes by Car
Address: Hartmann Rd, London E16 2PX, United Kingdom

Heathrow Airport
58.7M from UEL University / 1hr 8 minutes by Car
Address: Longford TW6, United Kingdom

London Stansted Airport
30.5M From UEL University / 35 minutes by Car
Address: Bassingbourn Rd, Stansted CM24 1QW, United Kingdom

Bus Stations:
Devalls Close (Stop W)
0.3 Mile from UEL University / 6 minutes by Walking
Address: London E6 5PL, United Kingdom

Cyprus Station (Stop M)
0.3 Mile from UEL University / 6 minutes by Walking
Address: London E6 5PJ, United Kingdom

Cyprus (Stop Q)
0.4 Mile from UEL University / 7 minutes by walking
Address: London E6 5PH, United Kingdom

Gallions Reach Roundabout (Stop B)
0.2 Mile from UEL University / 4 minutes by Walking
Address: London E6 6EY, United Kingdom

UEL Docklands Campus (Stop I)
16ft from UEL University /1 minute by walking
Address: London E16 2GA, United Kingdom


1-DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel London Excel

Address: 2 Festoon Way, London E16 1RH, United Kingdom

1.6 miles from University of East London/ 4 min. by car.

Phone number: +44 20 7540 4820

2-Premier Inn London Beckton hotel

Address: 1 Woolwich Manor Way, London E6 5NT, United Kingdom

0.9 mile from University of East London/ 4 min by car.

Phone number: +44 333 321 1244

3-Travelodge London Excel

Address: 1016 Dockside Rd, London E16 2FQ, United Kingdom

1.3 miles from University of East London/ 4 min. by car.

Phone number: +44 871 984 6298

4-Holiday Inn Express London - Excel, an IHG Hotel

Address: 1018 Dockside Rd, London E16 2FQ, United Kingdom

1.3 miles from University of East London/ 3 min. by car.

Phone number:  +44 20 3096 5888

Visa Application

- For participants who need Entry Visas to the country where the conference will be held, IEREK will issue the corresponding invitation letter for accepted applicants to facilitate visa issuance.

- Please notice that we will endeavor to assist you in obtaining a visa but the responsibility is yours and the decision rests solely with the appropriate Embassy.

Invitation Letter Issuance Process

1- In case the participant is an author who has submitted a research paper to the conference, it must get accepted by the Scientific Committee

2- Required participation fees must be paid

3- The participant should send the following information to the conference's official email:

* A clear copy of passport

* Passport number

* Full name as written in your passport.

* Date of Issuing and Expiration

* Date of Birth

* Email address of the nearest Embassy/Consulate to you

* Mobile Number including country code

4- Conference coordinator will issue the needful invitation letter and send a copy to the participant's email, in addition to another one to the corresponding email address of the embassy/consulate

5- The participant should print out the invitation letter along with all other required documents by the embassy/consulate and apply for VISA