The civil engineering is one of the oldest branches of engineering because of its relation to the establishment of built environment. It includes design, planning and implementation as well as the work of developing and reconstruction and restoration of buildings such as bridges, dams and ports, also, the planning of residential cities and the establishing of services such as sanitation stations, power stations, roads and transportation network.
Though the expression itself was used as a scientific term in ancient Rome, it is not possible to know when did the science of civil engineering originate, but we can say that civil engineering has started and developed with the development of mankind through the ages and the features of engineering in ancient times was developed into a science to be studied till modern times.
For example the pyramids of Giza pose as a model of architectural excellence, and illustrate the development of Engineering in the Pharaonic civilization for several reasons, because it consists of 2,300,000 blocks of rock with the mass of 2 to 30 tons per block, but so far, science was unable to reach the method of how they were built.
The Great Wall of China, considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World as it is built in less than ten years and with a length of more than 2500 kilometers.
Branches of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering has many branches:
- Construction Engineering: It is concerned with the design and implementation of residential and industrial facilities according to different construction materials, whether metal, concrete or wooden
- Transportation Engineering: is concerned with the design and construction of roads, bridges and transportation networks.
- Sanitary engineering: It is concerned with the design of sewage systems and water stations
- Engineering management and construction: It is interested in conducting an inventory of the implementation of the establishment with the lowest cost and the fastest possible time and site management.
- Engineering of dams and water resources: It is concerned with the design of water facilities, infrastructure and foundations as well as hydraulic designs as well as irrigation systems.
- Engineering of ports and marine facilities: It is concerned with the design and implementation of seaports and marine installations from docks and barriers, as well as protection of beaches
Development of Civil Engineering
The civil engineering has developed greatly over time. New methods have begun to appear in the design of buildings and architectural design, based, mainly, on the technological development in construction materials used and the reliance on environmental-friendly and stronger materials.
New Advances in Civil Engineering
Among these innovations are:
- Cork walls reinforced with concrete that are used in many buildings around the world. Some of the advantages of them are saving time, which is seven times faster than construction with traditional materials, and decreasing the number of workers needed for the construction. This innovation makes the buildings more earthquake-resistant than conventional construction. It is moisture-resistant and fire-resistant and facilitates the change of design of the buildings.
- A group of scientists have created the Ultra Rope, a rope made of carbon fiber, to achieve the highest rate of rigidity. These ropes are so strong that they can be used to install lifts in skyscrapers.
- Civil engineering has reached the so-called smart buildings and buildings are characterized by several features:
- Have the ability to detect and react to the surrounding conditions.
- Fast response to the needs of its users.
- Create a comfortable environment for its users.
Dubai, Abu Dhabi and Doha are among the most cities in the Middle East to contain the most intelligent buildings in the region, with airports ranked first as the smartest facilities, followed by hotels and hospitals in the third place
And it is expected that by 2020, Dubai will become one of the highest and most intelligent cities in the world