What is Abstract?
A lot of researchers need to write abstract for their research papers, in order to get them published through journals or publications, but they don’t know where to start.
Abstract is as a short description of (a research paper, a thesis, research report, etc.) to help the reader clearly understand the purpose, problem, methods, results, and conclusion of the research.
Who Need Abstract?
- Researchers submitting their articles to be published in journals.
- Post-graduate Students after completing their Ph.D. dissertation or M.A. thesis.
- Researchers submitting their papers to participate in a conference.
- Anyone wants to apply for research grants.
Types of Abstracts
1. The Descriptive Abstract
Refers to the abstracts that describe the work, without judgments, and are fairly short from 100: 200 words.
Contain information about:
- Purpose of work
- Goal of the work
- Methods of the research
- Keywords of the work
Doesn’t contain information about:
2. The Informative Abstract
The most common type of abstracts, as it gives an overview of everything in the research paper, including all the important results. An Informative Abstract length depends on the full research, and usually more than 10% of the Actual work.
Parts of The Informative Abstract:
- Case study or problem
This type of abstracts is rarely used, as it provides a judgement about the research’s validity or reliability, in addition to the description and the main findings of the research.
Parts of the Critical Abstract:
- Critique of the research
Before start, keep in mind
The purpose of Abstract
It gives us a background on the idea of the research and clarifies the procedures and the definition of the proper statement and aims to clarify the methodology to reach the solution.
You should ask yourself these three questions: What? Why? How? What is the problem? Why are you writing this and why do you care about the problem? And how can you solve the problem?
If an abstract is written for a journal, the author has to keep the writing style of that specific journal in mind.
ABCs of a great abstract
- Accuracy: great abstract must include accurate information from the research’s full paper.
- Brevity: great abstract gets straight to the point, in a scientific manner.
- Clarity: acronyms and abbreviations shouldn’t exist in great abstract without explanation.
Writing an Abstract
Either your abstract is about a scientific research paper, or a literature article, it will contain major parts, however there are some parts depend on the type of abstract.
The author should answer some questions during writing this part:
- What are the author’s reasons to do this study?
- What is the importance of this study?
- What makes this study useful for a reader?
Also, the reasons for writing this must be interesting enough for the author to get the writing motivation as well as to engage the readers .
In this section, the author should write the problem the research is trying to solve or explain. The following questions may help the author in writing this part.
- What is the main problem ?
- How can the author solve the problem?
In this part the author may discuss the methods he/she used in the research, or briefly review the literature. The following questions may help the author in writing this part.
- What are the main variables in the research?
- What is the main approach of the research?
- What is the procedures the author aim to follow to reach the solutions?
The last part of the abstract, in which the author explains the main findings of the research and the added value of the research paper.
Follow the instructions
If you are writing for a journal with a specific style guides, follow the instructions.
Write from scratch
The abstract should be written with new phrases and vocabulary differ from the ones the author’s have already used in the research paper.
After finishing the abstract, the author should revise it several times and remove any redundant words.
- Using the first person pronouns, because the abstracts is about the research not the author.
- Including any references in the abstract, however it’s okay to include relevant numerical data.